The belief that everything which happened, is happening and will happen is according to the knowledge, will and command of Allah Ta’ala is called Taqdeer. Belief in Taqdeer is compulsory.
The advantages of belief in Taqdeer (fate) and Tawakkul (Trust in Allah) are as follows:
1. No matter what hardship or misfortune befalls one, it will be accepted without panic and the heart will remain strong in the face of such hardships. Strong belief in Taqdeer will indicate that Allah’s Wish is in this occurrence and it cannot be opposed. The hardship will disappear only when so desired by Allah Ta’ala. Thus the man of Taqdeer accepts what comes his way with contented resignation.
2. One who has understood and accepted this conception of Taqdeer will not be overcome with frustration at the delay in the passing of the hardship. He will not become despondent and lose hope when the misfortune endures for any length of time. He will banish weakness.
3. The adherent of Taqdeer will not adopt unlawful ways and means of combating the difficulty, for he knows that the adversity has been brought about by Allah Ta’ala. He understands well that elimination of the hardship is not possible without the Will of Allah Ta’ala. He therefore realises the futility of his efforts in trying to eliminate what Allah Ta’ala has willed. He will thus not unnecessarily court the displeasure of Allah by the adoption of unlawful measures. Why court Allah’s Wrath when one’s purpose cannot be achieved even after having displeased Him?
4. The believer in Taqdeer and Tawakkul will not rely solely on material and mundane measures, but will resort to dua as well. He believes that nothing can be gained without His Will. He thus derives greater hope and strength by supplicating to Allah Ta’ala. An additional benefit of engaging in dua is the strengthening of one’s relationship with Allah Ta’ala. A strong bond of love with Allah Ta’ala is the basis of peace and all comfort.
5. The believer in Taqdeer will not attribute success, accomplishment and excellence to his efforts. He will attribute everything to the Will and Pleasure of Allah Ta’ala. He will thus be imbued with humility. Such a man will not be arrogant and haughty.
The summary of what has been said above is:
The believer in Taqdeer and Tawakkul will be grateful (make shukr) in times and occasions of success and prosperity, and he will be patient (make sabr) when failure and adversity overtake him. This is the great advantage which Allah Ta’ala points to in the following aayat:
“…so that you do not lose hope over what you have lost nor do you become elated because of what you have gained.” (Surah Hadeed)
The Islamic conception of Taqdeer should not be misconstrued and the essential and correct ways and means for worldly affairs should not be discarded on the pretext of resignation to Taqdeer. Discarding the lawful means and agencies which Allah Ta’ala has created for worldly affairs is weakness as well as erroneous. Such error and weakness have been criticised in the hadith. Hadhrat Auf Bin Malik (ra) narrates that once when Rasulullah (saws) decided a dispute, the one against whom the verdict went, exclaimed:
“Sufficient for me is Allah and He is a good Protector.”
This exclamation was intended to convey that Allah’s Pleasure was the cause of the setback which he suffered. Hearing this, Rasulullah (saws) said:
“Allah Ta’ala does not like weakness. Be alert!”
Here Rasulullah (saws) exhorted that one should harness the correct means for one’s case and activity. However, if inspite of instituting the correct measures, failure results, then one will be justified in saying: ( ). This hadith appears in Abu Dawood.